Holland Family DNA Testing Results
The Holland Family DNA Project - Initiated November 2003

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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is found in males and females, and is inherited from your mother.  Only females pass on mtDNA. Your mtDNA result tells you about your mother, and her mother, back in time to your daughter of Eve for your direct female line.

mtDNA Results

Kit Name Haplo HVR1 mutations HVR2 mutations
96249 J. Holland H 126C, 158G, 362C 41T,239C,263G,297G,309.1C,315.1C 
96899 Mary Fern Reid H 213A, 519C  
102507 Jerry Neal Holland H 214T, 519C  
155622 Willard Raymond Holland H 16519C  
92936 George S. Holland H 519C  
170613 Sharon Ruth Hill H 16519C 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C, 512C 
N32316 Anna M. Yost H CRS  
173708 Laura O'Brien H10 16221T, 16266T, 16399G, 16519C 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C 
118980 Jorge Noren Holland H1a 162G,519C 73G,146C,263G,309.1C,315.1C
167365 Paul Donald Holland H1c1 16263C, 16519C 263G, 315.1C, 477C 
15182 David Paul Holland H8 16153A, 16288C, 16362C 114T, 146C, 152C, 195C, 210G, 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C 
53166 Lis'A Gayle Johnson H3 519C 263G,309.1C,315.1C,522-,523-
N45089 Jane Clemens Scott J* 069T,126C,222T 73G,146C,152C,185A,228A,263G,295T,315.1C,462T,489C 
N59289 Jenny Holland J* 069T,126C,222T  
147251 Gerald Holland K 224C,234T,311C,519C 73G,114T,263G,315.1C,497T 
21595 Lewis W. Holland U4 356C, 519C 73G,195C,263G,310-,499A,524.1C,524.2A
N25605 Richard Alan Gianfagna U5a1a 172C,192T,256T,270T,291T,362C,399G  
N17957 Sharon Ann Dennis U5 243C,256T,270T,526A  
148359 Monica Holland U5a1a 172C,192T,256T,270T,291T,362C,399G  
81891 James Franklin Hols X 108T,183C,189C,223T,255A,278T,519C 73G,153G,195C,225A,227G,263G,315.1C 


Mitochondrial Haplogroup

Designation similar to Y-DNA
H Europe  
H3 Western Europe  
H8 Middle Eastern and Central Asian  
U4 Upper Palaeolithic, expanding into Europe before the last Glacial Maxium  
U5 Europe  

Haplogroup U

The mitochondrial super-haplogroup U encompasses haplogroups U1-U7 and haplogroup K. Haplogroup U, with its own multiple lineages nested within, is the oldest European-specific haplogroup, and its origin dates to approximately 50,000 years ago. Most likely arising in the Near East, and spreading into Europe in a very early expansion, the presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe pre-dates the expansion of agriculture in Europe. Interestingly, individuals with haplogroup U5 may have been come in contact with Neanderthals living in Europe at the time.
Copyright 2003 Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd.


The Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), the human mitochondrial sequence to which all other sequences are compared, belongs to haplogroup H.  About one half of Europeans are of mt-DNA haplogroup H. The haplogroup is also common in North Africa and the Middle East

Haplogroup H

An RFLP test is now available for mtDNA Haplogroup H. (RFLP stands for restriction fragment length polymorphism.)  Haplogroup H is the most common mtDNA Haplogroup in Europe, occurring in about 48% of the population. The RFLP test will identify the sub-Haplogroup for Haplogroup H, such as H1a or H7. There are twenty-three (23) identified sub-Haplogroups for Haplogroup H.

The names for the sub-Haplogroups of Haplogroup H follow the same structure as for Y DNA Haplogroups and sub-Haplogroups. For the first level of sub-Haplogroup, the Haplogroup name is followed by a number, such as H1, H6 or H8. If there is a further breakdown into more sub-groups, they are identified with a lower case alphabetic character, such as H1a and H2a.

The major sub-Haplogroups identified for Haplogroup H are:

H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H10, H11

Most of these sub-Haplogroups can be broken down further. For example, H1 could be broken into H1a, H1b, and H1f.

H1 (H1a, H1b and H1*) seems to be the female lineage equivalent of R1b on the male side. Our results mirror the studies’ percentages quite closely, despite the fact that our client distribution is not scientific, but opt-in. As more results become available, Family Tree DNA will upload its distribution frequency to our website.

H1 represents 30% of H and 46% of Iberia. 14% of all Europeans fall into this sub group of H.

H1b is most frequent in Eastern and Northern Europe (like Haplogroup I for the Y-DNA), and if the ancestral site was Iberia gives us an idea of the post Glacial movements beginning, perhaps, 10,000 years ago.

H1* means that you have been tested for H1a and H1b and that your signature doesn’t fall into any of these sub-groups. H1* is therefore the ancestral state of the largest group in Europe and is found in Spain which is the presumed starting point for recolonization after the end of the last Ice Age.

H2 is particularly common in Germany and Scotland. This might support a migration from Germany to NW Europe that included wives and not just male explorers. (This contrasts to the Viking expansion, which seems to show that Viking males married local women in the places they settled).

H2a is found in its highest % in Eastern Europe and extends to central Asia. The author refers to its mimicking Y-DNA R1a, albeit at lower population frequencies.

H3 is smaller then H1, and nearly totally restricted to Western Europe. The inference here is that the H3 group developed in Western Europe rather then being a group that migrated to Western Europe. When age estimates are made for these 2 groups it seems that H3 is younger than H1.

H6 & H8 (and any H6* or H8* groups found) are Middle Eastern and Central Asian in origin. The classic assumption that H is just a European Haplogroup is shown to be inaccurate by this study. These groups are found at very low frequencies in Europe and due to their distinctively divergent motifs are believed to be very old. The oldest assumption that Haplogroup H is 20,000 ybp (years before present) must be revisited by the scientific community as it appears from recent studies that Asian H and possibly Middle Eastern H are 40,000 years old… and therefore 20,000 years older the European H.

The chart at the link below shows all the identified sub-Haplogroups for Haplogroup H:   http://www.familytreeDNA.com/hclade.html

The mtDNA H sub-clade Test will return a result showing the sub-Haplogroup for H. These sub-Haplogroups are highlighted in the chart above.

Identifying the sub-Haplogroup for Haplogroup H will provide additional information. For example, H6 have a Middle Eastern origin, so they are similar to the Y chromosome Haplogroups J and E.

The largest sub-Haplogroup of Haplogroup H is H1, which comprises about 30% of Haplogroup H, and is most frequent on the Iberian Peninsula. mtDNA Haplogroup H1 appears to be the rough equivalent of Y DNA Haplogroup R1b.

mtDNA Haplogroup H1b is most frequent in Eastern and Northern Europe, being equivalent to Y DNA Haplogroup I. mtDNA Haplogroup H1f is most common in Finland.

mtDNA Haplogroup H2a is found in Eastern Europe and extends to central Asia, and could be considered an equivalent of Y DNA Haplogroup R1a, although at a lower frequency. H2 is particularly common in Germany and Scotland.

The population of mtDNA Haplogroup H3 is smaller then H1, and nearly totally restricted to Western Europe.

mtDNA Haplogroup H6 and H8 are found at very low frequencies in Europe and are believed to be very old. H6 is perhaps 40,000 years old, which would be 20,000 years older the European H Haplogroup.

If you have tested your mtDNA at FamilyTreeDNA.com, and your result stated you belong to Haplogroup H, you can order the Haplogroup H sub-clade test. To order your test, go to your Personal Page at familytreeDNA.com, and click on Order "Tests" towards the top of the page, to the right of your name. A new test kit is not sent to you, since your sample is on file.
Important: if you are not Haplogroup H, this test is not for you and will not be offered.

If you are a Y DNA customer, you can order an mtDNA test from your Personal Page, by clicking on Order "Tests" towards the top of the page, to the right of your name. If you have not had any tests at
FamilyTreeDNA.com, click on the link below to order a mtDNA test.


Family Tree DNA is the first company to provide mtDNA H sub-clade tests for consumers.  For more details on Haplogroups, please go to the FamilyTree DNA web site.

Haplogroup J

Haplogroup J (previously known as HG9 or Eu9/Eu10) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is defined by the 12f2.1 genetic marker, or the equivalent M304 marker.  Haplogroup J is believed to have arisen 31,700 years ago (plus or minus 12,800 years) in the Near East.  The Near East, also called Middle East and Southwest Asia, encompasses the eastern portion of Turkey, Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Georgia, Armenia, and Iraq. Haplogroup J is most closely related to Haplogroup I, as both Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J are descendants of Haplogroup IJ (S2, S22). Haplogroup IJ is in turn derived from Haplogroup F. The main current subgroups J1 and J2, which now account between them for almost all of the population of the haplogroup, are both believed to have arisen very early, at least 10,000 years ago.

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Holland Family History and Family Tree:  Holland Family Resource Center
Diana Holland Faust 
Published  10 June 1996   This page added 29 November 2003  Last updated 10 March 2014